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Thursday, 5 March 2015

குருதி (இரத்தம்)


   குருதி (இரத்தம்)தி



குருதி என்பது விலங்கினங்களின், உடல் உயிரணுக்களுக்குத் தேவையான பொருட்களை 

எடுத்துச் செல்லும்சிறப்பான இயல்புகளைக் கொண்ட ஒரு உடல் திரவம் ஆகும்


vessels) ஊடாக உடலில் சுற்றியோடும். இதுவே முழுமையாக குருதிச் சுற்றோட்டத்தொகுதி

 என அழைக்கப்படுகின்றது. இது உடலுக்குத் தொடர்ந்து தேவைப்படும், இன்றியமையாத 

செந்நிறநீர்மப் பொருள். தமிழில் குருதியை அரத்தம், இரத்தம், உதிரம்செந்நீர் என்ற 

பிறபெயர்களாலும் அழைப்பர்.

குருதியானது மூளைக்கும் மற்ற உறுப்புகளுக்கும் தேவையான ஆக்சிசன், ஊட்டச்சத்துக்கள்போன்றவற்றை உடல் கலங்களுக்கு எடுத்துச் செல்வதோடல்லாமல், அங்கே பெறப்படும்காபனீரொக்சைட்டு, லாக்டிக் அமிலம் போன்ற கழிவுகளை, கலங்களிலிருந்து அகற்றி எடுத்துச் செல்வதிலும் பங்கு கொள்ளும். குருதி ஓட்டத்தின் துணை இல்லாமல் உடலின் எப்பகுதியும் இயங்க முடியாது. குருதி ஓட்டம் நின்றால் உடல் இயங்குவது அற்றுவிடும்.
குருதி என்பது சிவப்பு அணுக்கள், வெள்ளை அணுக்கள், குருதிச் சிறுதட்டுக்கள் கொண்ட நீர்மப்பொருள். குருதியில் உள்ள திண்மப்பொருள்களின் அளவு 40% எனவும், நீர்மப்பொருள் 60% எனவும் கண்டுள்ளனர். திண்மப்பொருள்களில் பெரும்பாலானவை சிவப்பணுக்கள்தாம் (96%). வெள்ளை அணுக்கள் 3%, குருதிச் சிறுதட்டுக்கள்) 1%.

மனிதரின் உடலில் சுமார் 4-5 லிட்டர் குருதி ஓடும். 72 கிலோ கிராம் எடை உள்ள ஒருவரின் உடலில் சுமார் 4.5 லிட்டரும், 36 கி.கிராம் எடை உள்ள ஒரு சிறுவனின் உடலில் சுமார் சரிபாதி அளவு குருதியும், 4 கி.கிராம் உடைய ஒரு குழந்தையின் உடலில் சுமார் 300 மில்லி லிட்டரும் (0.3 லிட்டர் மட்டுமே) குருதி ஓடும். எனவே சிறு குழந்தைக்கு அடிபட்டால் ஏற்படும் குருதிப்பெருக்கினால் குருதியிழப்பு ஏற்படும்போது அது பெரிதும் தீங்கிழைக்க வல்லது. காற்றழுத்தம் குறைவாக இருக்கும் உயரமான இடங்களில் வாழ்பவர்களின் உடலில் குருதியின் அளவு சுமார் 1.9 லிட்டர் அதிகமாக இருக்கும்.
குருதி செப்பமுற இயங்க வேறு பல உறுப்புக்களும் துணைபுரிகின்றன. குருதி ஆக்சிசனை நுரையீரல் வழியாக பெறுகின்றது. பின்னர் குருதியோட்டம் திரும்பும் வழியில் கார்பனீரொக்சைட்டு வளிமத்தை நுரையீரல் பெற்று, வெளிவிடும் மூச்சின் வழியாக வெளியேற்றுகிறது.
குருதி நீர்மம் என்பது மஞ்சள் நிற (வைக்கோல் நிறம்) நீர்மம். இதுவே குருதியின் 

கன அளவில் 55% முதல் 65% ஆகும். குருதிநீர்மம் பெரும்பாலும் நீரால் ஆனது. இந்த 

மஞ்சள் நிற குருதிநீர்மத்தில் சிவப்பணுக்களும் வெள்ளை அணுக்களும்

குருதிச் சிறுதட்டுக்களும் கூழ்மங்களாக (புதைமிதவிகளாக (colloids)) 

இருக்கின்றன.

குருதிக்குச் செந்நிறம் தருவதுசெங்குருதியணுக்கள். ஒரு மைக்ரோ லிட்டரில் (லிட்டரின் மில்லியனில் ஒரு பகுதி) சுமார் 4 முதல் 6 மில்லியன் சிவப்பணுக்கள் உள்ளன. ஒவ்வொரு சிவப்பணுவும் சுமார் 7 மைக்ரோ மீ விட்டம் கொண்டது (ஒரு மைக்ரோ மீ = ஒரு மில்லி மீட்டரில் ஆயிரத்தில் ஒரு பங்கு). வெண்குருதியணுக்கள் நோய் எதிர்ப்பாற்றல் முறைமையில்பங்கெடுக்கும். குருதிச் சிறுதட்டுக்கள் குருதி உறைதலில் மிக முக்கியமான பங்கெடுக்கும்.

CHOOSE YOUR HEALTHY CHOICE


CHOOSE YOUR HEALTHY CHOICE



Wednesday, 4 March 2015

FACTS ABOUT BROWN BREAD VS WHITE BREAD


FACTS ABOUT BROWN BREAD VS WHITE BREAD




Many active people and those watching their waistlines choose brown breads as a smart eating choice. But as it turns out, not all brown breads are created equal. The truth is, many so called brown breads on grocery store shelves are made with wheat flour, the exact ingredient in white breads, with bran or colouring mixed in. The key ingredient in healthier brown breads is whole wheat or wholemeal flour. So its worth checking the label! 
Breads and fat
Many diets suggest avoiding bread (especially white bread) which, like pasta, is a simple carbohydrate that if not burned off turns to fat. Simple carbs are especially associated with the hard to target fat around the middle area.
As well, white bread contains a large proportion of high GI (glycemic index) carbohydrates. These carbohydrates cause sugars to be released quickly into the bloodstream. This causes a rapid rise in blood sugar levels which triggers a similarly rapid release of the body’s own sugar regulating hormone, insulin. You’ll store more fat and kill your energy after you consume these types of bread. Not good if you’re heading into a long day of school, work, or training.
White vs. Brown Bread


A real brown bread is healthier than white bread because the wheat flour used to make brown bread is less processed compared to wheat flour used for making white bread. During the processing of the wheat flour for making brown bread the bran and germ in the wheat grain are not removed. The bran is the part of wheat grain that is rich in fibre, while germ is the inner part of wheat grain which is packed with nutrients, Vitamins B and E as well as phytochemicals.
Traditional white bread is made with refined flour, meaning that the wheat and grains used has been milled so that the bran, germ, and endosperm are removed. Since parts of the grain are removed in the milling process, much of the wheat’s original fiber, vitamin B, and iron content have been removed. In an attempt to restore some of its lost properties, manufacturers can enrich white bread or flour to re-add the b vitamins and iron; dietary fiber, however, is lost and not replaced.
Brown bread is a designation often given to breads made with significant amounts of whole grain flour, usually rye or wheat. The simplest way to know real brown bread is checking the label. All authentic brown bread should show that they are manufactured with whole grain/meal and not enriched wheat flour. Check the label to see if the brown bread includes wheat flour, enriched flour, hydrogenated oil or caramel. Brown breads with any of these ingredients are not considered “real” brown breads. A quick look at the ingredients in brown bread will reveal that about half contain wheat flour!
Wheat bread: wheat bread, made from wheat flour is made with milled wheat, which no longer has the bran and germ of the whole grain wheat, which holds the important nutrients. This term may be confusing, so look for “whole wheat flour” instead of just “wheat flour.”
Multigrain bread or “made with whole grains”: if the ingredient or package does not list whole grains as the first few items, multigrain bread can be made with more than one type of milled grain, and only contain a very small portion of whole grains.
Brown colored bread: just because a loaf of bread is brown in appearance does not mean that it is made with whole wheat. Manufacturers can use coloring agents or molasses to add color to their bread, so it can actually be white bread in disguise.
• “High in fiber”: manufacturers may add additional fiber to their bread, but it does not make it whole wheat bread. It can be white bread with added fiber.
Choose wisely
This is not too say that white and brown breads are exactly the same. If you compare the labels of whet and brown breads of your favourite brand, you will probably find that the brown bread still has more dietary fiber, making it the wiser choice. And there may be times when some people ned o carbo-load with white bread, especially body builders. What’s important to remember is not to confuse all brown breads with the much healthier whole grain alternatives. Do your research and read your labels for the choice that’s right for you.

Sunday, 1 March 2015

KNOW YOUR FOOD CALORIES



    KNOW YOUR FOOD CALORIES









Saturday, 28 February 2015

DO YOU KNOW ABOUT MILK?


FACTS ABOUT MILK


Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrums, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. Milk contains many other nutrients  and the carbohydrate lactose. The majority of the world's people are lactose intolerant.

Milk is nature’s wonder beverage. It helps build strong bones and lower blood pressure. It may reduce the risk of diabetes and it can help you maintain a healthy weight. It is both tasty and satisfying. 
There is no other food or beverage that provides the same health benefits as milk.
It’s a powerful package of goodness, containing important nutrients such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, high-quality protein and vitamins A and D. 
Milk is a great nutrition deal for your food dollar.
Spend some time with these fun brochures and info graphics to learn more about milk and cheese:
Milk Processing

Most milk undergoes processing before you buy it at the store. The three primary steps include: pasteurization, homogenization and fortification.

Pasteurization heats the milk to destroy harmful microorganisms and prolong shelf life. Normal pasteurization keeps milk safer while maintaining its valuable nutrients. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is pasteurized at a much higher temperature to make it sterile. UHT milk is then packed into special containers that keep it safe without requiring refrigeration.
After pasteurization, milk undergoes homogenization to prevent separation of the milk fat from the fluid milk. Homogenization creates a smooth, uniform texture.

Finally, milk is fortified to increase its nutritional value or to replace nutrients lost during processing. Vitamin D is added to most milk produced in the United States to facilitate the absorption of calcium. Vitamin A is frequently added to reduced-fat, low-fat and fat-free milks. Vitamin A promotes normal vision, particularly helping the eyes to adjust to low-light settings. Check the Nutrients in Milk page for a complete listing of the key nutrients found in milk.

Types of Milk


 The primary types of milk sold in stores are: whole milk, reduced-fat milk (2%), low-fat milk(1%), and fat-free milk. The percentages included in the names of the milk indicate how much fat is in the milk by weight.


Whole milk (3.25% fat) is what comes from the cow before, while reduced-fat milk (2% fat), low-fat milk (1% fat), and fat-free or skim milk (0% fat) undergo processing to remove extra fat that comes from the cream. Besides the noticeable difference in taste, whole milk and low-fat or skim milks differ in their fat, nutrient, and calorie content.
Of the four options, whole milk has the highest amount of saturated fat and calories, with around 150 calories(compared to skim milk’s 90 calories) and four grams of saturated fat per eight-ounce serving. While whole milk has more saturated fat, this isn’t necessarily a bad thing—more and more research suggests saturated fat may not actually be unhealthy. Whole milk does contain more cholesterol per eight-ounce serving—24 milligrams of cholesterol compared to skim milk’s five milligrams, but some studies have found that whole milk might not increase total cholesterol, and may actually raise good HDL cholesterol levels   
Skim milk is made by physically separating and removing the fat content from whole dairy milk. Since fat removal also strips the milk of all its fat-soluble vitamins, skim milk must be fortified with vitamins A and D to make up for the loss of nutrition. For the general population, skim milk serves as an excellent nutritional substitute for whole milk. It is the more favorable choice if you are on a reduced fat diet or have a higher risk of heart disease. However, there are experts who question the safety of the skimming process and argue that drinking skim milk instead of whole milk can result in adverse health effects.
reduced-fat milk contains 2% milk fat and low-fat milk contains 1% milk fat.
Fat-free milk, also called nonfat or skim, contains no more than 0.2% milk fat.
Making low-fat and fat-free milk involves skimming the cream from whole milk out of the final product. Unfortunately, fat-soluble vitamins D, A, E, and K (which are found in the milk fat) go along with it. As a result, reduced-fat, low-fat, and skim milks contain lower amounts of many nutrients, but milk companies (even some organic brands!) have figured out how to add these vitamins back in during processing to fortify the final product with nutrients, particularly vitamins A and D. Some brands also boost their product with powdered milk solids to achieve the thick, white texture we’re accustomed to seeing (since fat-free milk is naturally blue-tinted and pretty watery). Fortification ensures that lower-fat milks are nutritionally similar to whole milk and can remain a significant source of vitamins in the diet. Regardless, whole milk proponents argue that fat-soluble vitamins are not as easily absorbed without the milk fat present.
All of these milks contain the nine essential nutrients found in whole milk but less fat. The United States government sets minimum standards for fluid milk that is produced and sold. Reduced fat milks have all of the nutrients of full fat milk; no water is added to these types of milk.
Organic Milk

All milk must comply with very stringent safety standards and is among the most highly regulated and safest foods available. Organic milk is produced by dairy farmers that use only organic fertilizers and organic pesticides, and their cows are not given supplemental hormones (rBST). Dairy farmers and producers make many specialty forms of milk to meet consumer preferences and needs. Organic milk is also available as lactose-free and ultra-pasteurized.
The organic label is not a judgment about the quality or safety of the milk. As with all organic foods, it's the process that makes milk organic, not the final product. The nutrient content of organic milk is the same as standard milk and offers no additional health benefits compared to standard milk. Stringent government standards that include testing all types of milk for antibiotic and pesticide residues ensure that both organic milk and conventional milk are pure, safe and nutritious.1

lactose-free milk. It has added lactase to break down the lactose. It also has about the same nutrients as regular milk.

How to choose milk?
Dairy milk comes in many varieties to match the wide range of consumer preferences. 
§  Do you like your milk creamy but not too rich? Then low-fat milk is a good choice.
§  Do you prefer a light taste and low calories? Then fat-free milk might be for you.
§  Do you have trouble digesting lactose? Then lactose-free milk might be your best choice.
§  Is your baby a year old and being weaned from the bottle? Then select whole milk for their second year of life.
§  Need boxes of milk to put in your child's lunch box? The single portion, shelf-stable milk boxes will meet your need. 

There is a variety and choice to fit every age and lifestyle.




Choosing between whole, skim, or low-fat milk is largely a matter of personal choice in terms of diet, use, and preference. Skim or low-fat milk might be a better choice for people who are trying to hit specific daily caloric goals or those who already obtain a lot of fat from other foods in their diet. For people trying to gain weight, build muscle, or obtain more natural nutrients, whole milk makes a lot more sense. Each option has both benefits and drawbacks, so picking “the best milk” is more about balance than one right or wrong choice—a little skim milk with cereal, some whole milk in a protein shake, and a dash of 2% in a cup of coffee seems like a good compromise.

 
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